Standards-Lesson_Matrix.pdfThe following general standards are based on information found at http://www.educationworld.com/standards/national/. These are not intended to be detailed descriptions of a K-12 content but serve only as a potential reference to content found in The Watchmaker's Pulse Academy curricula.

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You can also download a Matrix of standards associated with specific courses. (NOTE: This content is only an example and will not be ready until 2018!) Click the following image to download the matrix.


SCIENCE

SCIENCE AS INQUIRY

As a result of activities in grades K-12, all students should develop

·Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

·Understanding about scientific inquiry

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

As a result of the activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of

·Properties of objects and materials

·Position and motion of objects

·Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism

As a result of their activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop an understanding

·Properties and changes of properties in matter

·Motions and forces

·Transfer of energy

As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

·Structure of atoms

·Structure and properties of matter

·Chemical reactions

·Motions and forces

·Conservation of energy and increase in disorder

·Interactions of energy and matter

LIFE SCIENCE

As a result of activities in grades K-4, all students should develop understanding of

·The characteristics of organisms

·Life cycles of organisms

·Organisms and environments

As a result of their activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop understanding

·Structure and function in living systems

·Reproduction and heredity

·Regulation and behavior

·Populations and ecosystems

·Diversity and adaptations of organisms

As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop understanding of

·The cell

·Molecular basis of heredity

·Biological evolution

·Interdependence of organisms

·Matter, energy, and organization in living systems

·Behavior of organisms

EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE

As a result of their activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of

·Properties of earth materials

·Objects in the sky

·Changes in earth and sky

As a result of their activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop an understanding

·Structure of the earth system

·Earth's history

·Earth in the solar system

As a result of their activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

·Energy in the earth system

·Geochemical cycles

·Origin and evolution of the earth system

·Origin and evolution of the universe

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

As a result of activities in grades K-12, all students should develop

·Abilities of technological design

·Understanding about science and technology

·Abilities to distinguish between natural objects and objects made by humans

PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES

As a result of activities in grades K-4, all students should develop understanding of

·Personal health

·Characteristics and changes in populations

·Types of resources

·Changes in environments

·Science and technology in local challenges

As a result of activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop understanding

·Personal health

·Populations, resources, and environments

·Natural hazards

·Risks and benefits

·Science and technology in society

As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop understanding of

·Personal and community health

·Population growth

·Natural resources

·Environmental quality

·Natural and human-induced hazards

·Science and technology in local, national, and global challenges

HISTORY OF NATURE AND SCIENCE:

As a result of activities in grades K-12, all students should develop understanding of

·Science as a human endeavor

·Nature of science

·History of science

LANGUAGE ARTS

READING FOR PERSPECTIVE

Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.

UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE

Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience.

EVALUATION STRATEGIES

Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES

Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE

Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

EVALUATING DATA

Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.

DEVELOPING RESEARCH SKILLS

Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.

MULTICULTURAL UNDERSTANDING

Students develop an understanding of and respect for diversity in language use, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, and social roles.

APPLYING NON-ENGLISH PERSPECTIVES

Students whose first language is not English make use of their first language to develop competency in the English language arts and to develop understanding of content across the curriculum.

PARTICIPATING IN SOCIETY

Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities.

APPLYING LANGUAGE SKILLS

Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

MATHEMATICS

Counting and Cardinality

·K Know number names and the count sequence.

·K Count to tell the number of objects.

·K Compare numbers.

operations and algebraic thinking

·K Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.

·1 represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.

·1 Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

·1 add and subtract within 20.

·1 Work with addition and subtraction equations.

·2 represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.

·2 add and subtract within 20.

·2 Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication.

·3 represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.

·3 Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.

·3 multiply and divide within 100.

·3 Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.

·4 Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.

·4 Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.

·4 Generate and analyze patterns.

·5 Write and interpret numerical expressions.

·5 analyze patterns and relationships.

number and operations in Base ten

·K Work with numbers 11–19 to gain foundations for place value.

·1 extend the counting sequence.

·1 Understand place value.

·1 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.

·2 Understand place value.

·2 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.

·3 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

·4 Generalize place value understanding for multidigit whole numbers.

·4 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

·5 Understand the place value system.

·5 Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.

number and operations—fractions

·3 develop understanding of fractions as numbers.

·4 extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.

·4 Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

·4 Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.

·5 Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.

·5 apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.

measurement and data

·K describe and compare measurable attributes.

·K Classify objects and count the number of objects in categories.

·1 measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units.

·1 tell and write time.

·1 represent and interpret data.

·2 measure and estimate lengths in standard units.

·2 relate addition and subtraction to length.

·2 Work with time and money.

·2 represent and interpret data.

·3 Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.

·3 represent and interpret data.

·3 Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.

·3 Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguish between linear and area measures.

·4 Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.

·4 represent and interpret data.

·4 Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.

·5 Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.

·5 represent and interpret data.

·5 Geometric measurement: understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition.

Geometry

·K Identify and describe shapes.

·K analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes.

·1 reason with shapes and their attributes.

·2 reason with shapes and their attributes.

·3 reason with shapes and their attributes.

·4 draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.

·5 Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

·5 Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties.

·6 Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.

·7 draw, construct and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationships between them.

·7 Solve real-life and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume.

·8 Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.

·8 Understand and apply the Pythagorean theorem.

·8 Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones and spheres.

·HS experiment with transformations in the plane

·HS Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions

·HS Prove geometric theorems

·HS make geometric constructions

·HS Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations

·HS Prove theorems involving similarity

·HS define trigonometric ratios and solve problems involving right triangles

·HS apply trigonometry to general triangles

·HS Understand and apply theorems about circles

·HS find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles

·HS translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section

·HS Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically

·HS explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems

·HS Visualize relationships between twodimensional and three-dimensional objects

·HS apply geometric concepts in modeling situations

ratios and Proportional relationships

·6 Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems.

·7 analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

the number System

·6 apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.

·6 Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.

·6 apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.

·7 apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers.

·8 Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.

·expressions and equations

·8 Work with radicals and integer exponents.

·8 Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.

·8 analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

expressions and equations

·6 apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.

·6 reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities.

·6 represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables.

·7 Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions.

·7 Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.

Statistics and Probability

·6 develop understanding of statistical variability.

·6 Summarize and describe distributions.

·7 Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population.

·7 draw informal comparative inferences about two populations.

·7 Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models.

·8 Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.

·HS Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable

·HS Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables

·HS Interpret linear models

·HS Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments

·HS make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments and observational studies

·HS Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data

·HS Use the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model

·HS Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems

·HS Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions

functions

·8 define, evaluate, and compare functions.

·8 Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

·HS Understand the concept of a function and use function notation

·HS Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context

·HS analyze functions using different representations

·HS Build a function that models a relationship between two quantities

·HS Build new functions from existing functions

·HS Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems

·HS Interpret expressions for functions in terms of the situation they model

·HS extend the domain of trigonometric functions using the unit circle

·HS model periodic phenomena with trigonometric functions

·HS Prove and apply trigonometric identities

NUMBER AND QUANTITY

·HS extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents

·HS Use properties of rational and irrational numbers.

·HS reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems

·HS Perform arithmetic operations with complex numbers

·HS represent complex numbers and their operations on the complex plane

·HS Use complex numbers in polynomial identities and equations

·HS represent and model with vector quantities.

·HS Perform operations on vectors.

·HS Perform operations on matrices and use matrices in applications.

ALGEBRA

·HS Interpret the structure of expressions

·HS Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems

·HS Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials

·HS Understand the relationship between zeros and factors of polynomials

·HS Use polynomial identities to solve problems

·HS rewrite rational expressions

·HS Create equations that describe numbers or relationships

·HS Understand solving equations as a process of reasoning and explain the reasoning

·HS Solve equations and inequalities in one variable

·HS Solve systems of equations

·HS represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically

SOCIAL SCIENCES - CIVICS

WHAT IS GOVERNMENT?

As a result of the activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of

·What is Government and What Should It Do?

·What is government?

·Where do people in government get the authority to make, apply, and enforce rules and laws and manage disputes about them?

·Why is government necessary?

·What are some of the most important things governments do?

·What are the purposes of rules and laws?

·How can you evaluate rules and laws?

·What are the differences between limited and unlimited governments?

·Why is it important to limit the power of government?

VALUES AND PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY

As a result of the activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of

·What are the Basic Values and Principles of American Democracy?

·What are the most important values and principles of American democracy?

·What are some important beliefs Americans have about themselves and their government?

·Why is it important for Americans to share certain values, principles, and beliefs?

·What are the benefits of diversity in the United States?

·How should conflicts about diversity be prevented or managed?

·How can people work together to promote the values and principles of American democracy?

·How Does the Government Established by the Constitution Embody the Purposes, Values, and Principles of American Democracy?

·What is the United States Constitution and why is it important?

·What does the national government do and how does it protect individual rights and promote the common good?

·What are the major responsibilities of state governments?

·What are the major responsibilities of local governments?

·Who represents you in the legislative and executive branches of your local, state, and national governments?

OTHER NATIONS AND WORLD AFFAIRS

As a result of the activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of

·What is the Relationship of the United States to Other Nations and to World Affairs?

·How is the world divided into nations?

·How do nations interact with one another?

ROLES OF THE CITIZEN

As a result of the activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of

·What are the Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy?

·What does it mean to be a citizen of the United States?

·How does a person become a citizen?

·What are important rights in the United States?

·What are important responsibilities of Americans?

·What dispositions or traits of character are important to the preservation and improvement of American democracy?

·How can Americans participate in their government?

·What is the importance of political leadership and public service?

·How should Americans select leaders?

As a result of the activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop an understanding of

·What are the Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy?

·What is citizenship?

·What are the rights of citizens?

·What are the responsibilities of citizens?

·What dispositions or traits of character are important to the preservation and improvement of American constitutional democracy?

·How can citizens take part in civic life?

As a result of the activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

·What are the Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy?

·What is citizenship?

·What are the rights of citizens?

·What are the responsibilities of citizens?

·What civic dispositions or traits of private and public character are important to the preservation and improvement of American constitutional democracy?

·How can citizens take part in civic life?

CIVIC LIFE, POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT

As a result of the activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop an understanding of

·What are Civic Life, Politics, and Government?

·What is civic life? What is politics? What is government? Why are government and politics necessary? What purposes should government serve?

·What are the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited government?

·What are the nature and purposes of constitutions?

·What are alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments?

As a result of the activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

·What are Civic Life, Politics, and Government?

·What is civic life? What is politics? What is government? Why are government and politics necessary? What purposes should government serve?

·What are the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited government?

·What are the nature and purposes of constitutions?

·What are alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments?

FOUNDATIONS OF THE POLITICAL SYSTEM

As a result of the activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop an understanding of

·What are the Foundations of the American Political System?

·What is the American idea of constitutional government?

·What are the distinctive characteristics of American society?

·What is American political culture?

·What values and principles are basic to American constitutional democracy?

As a result of the activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

·What are the Foundations of the American Political System?

·What is the American idea of constitutional government?

·What are the distinctive characteristics of American society?

·What is American political culture?

·What values and principles are basic to American constitutional democracy?

PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY

As a result of the activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop an understanding of

·How Does the Government Established by the Constitution Embody the Purposes, Values, and Principles of American Democracy?

·How are power and responsibility distributed, shared, and limited in the government established by the United States Constitution?

·What does the national government do?

·How are state and local governments organized and what do they do?

·Who represents you in local, state, and national governments?

·What is the place of law in the American constitutional system?

·How does the American political system provide for choice and opportunities for participation?

As a result of the activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

·How Does the Government Established by the Constitution Embody the Purposes, Values, and Principles of American Democracy?

·How are power and responsibility distributed, shared, and limited in the government established by the United States Constitution?

·How is the national government organized and what does it do?

·How are state and local governments organized and what do they do?

·What is the place of law in the American constitutional system?

·How does the American political system provide for choice and opportunities for participation?

OTHER NATIONS AND WORLD AFFAIRS

As a result of the activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop an understanding of

·What is the Relationship of the United States to Other Nations and to World Affairs?

·How is the world organized politically?

·How has the United States influenced other nations and how have other nations influenced American politics and society?

As a result of the activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop an understanding of

·What is the Relationship of the United States to Other Nations and to World Affairs?

·How is the world organized politically?

·How do the domestic politics and constitutional principles of the United States affect its relations with the world?

·How has the United States influenced other nations, and how have other nations influenced American politics and society?

SOCIAL SCIENCES - ECONOMICS

SCARCITY

Productive resources are limited. Therefore, people cannot have all the goods and services they want; as a result, they must choose some things and give up others. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·People make choices because they can't have everything they want. Whenever a choice is made, something is given up.

·Economic wants are desires that can be satisfied by consuming a good, service, or leisure activity.

·Goods are objects that can satisfy people's wants; services are actions that can satisfy people's wants.

·People's choices about what goods and services to buy and consume determine how resources will be used.

·The opportunity cost of a choice is the value of the best alternative given up.

·People who make goods and provide services are called producers. People whose wants are satisfied by using goods and services are called consumers.

·Productive resources are the natural resources, human resources, and capital goods available to make goods and services. Natural resources, such as land, are "gifts of nature;" they are present without human intervention. Human resources are the quantity and quality of human effort directed toward producing goods and services.

·Capital goods are goods that are produced and used to make other goods and services. Human capital refers to the quality of labor resources, which can be improved through investments in education, training, and health.

·Entrepreneurs are people who organize other productive resources to make goods and services.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·Scarcity is the condition of not being able to have all of the goods and services that one wants. It exists because human wants for goods and services exceed the quantity of goods and services that can be produced using all available resources.

·Like individuals, governments and societies experience scarcity because human wants exceed what can be made from all available resources.

·Choices involve trading off the expected value of one opportunity against the expected value of its best alternative.

·The choices people make have both present and future consequences.

·The evaluation of choices and opportunity costs is subjective; such evaluations differ across individuals and societies.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·Choices made by individuals, firms, or government officials often have long run unintended consequences that can partially or entirely offset the initial effects of the decision.

MARGIN COST/BENEFIT

Different methods can be used to allocate goods and services. People acting individually or collectively through government, must choose which methods to use to allocate different kinds of goods and services. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·No method of distributing goods and services can satisfy all wants.

·There are different ways to distribute goods and services (by prices, command, majority rule, contests, force, first-come/first-served, sharing equally, lottery, personal characteristics, and others), and there are advantages and disadvantages to each.

Effective decision making requires comparing the additional costs of alternatives with the additional benefits. Most choices involve doing a little more or a little less of something: few choices are "all or nothing" decisions. At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·To determine the best level of consumption of a product, people must compare the additional benefits with the additional costs of consuming a little more or a little less.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·Marginal benefit is the change in total benefit resulting from an action. Marginal cost is the change in total cost resulting from an action.

·As long as the marginal benefit of an activity exceeds the marginal cost, people are better off doing more of it; when the marginal cost exceeds the marginal benefit, they are better off doing less of it.

·To produce the profit-maximizing level of output and hire the optimal number of workers, and other resources, producers must compare the marginal benefits and marginal costs of producing a little more with the marginal benefits and marginal costs of producing a little less.

·To determine the optimal level of a public policy program, voters and government officials must compare the marginal benefits and marginal costs of providing a little more of a little less of the program's services.

ALLOCATION OF GOODS AND SERVICES

Different methods can be used to allocate goods and services. People acting individually or collectively through government, must choose which methods to use to allocate different kinds of goods and services. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·No method of distributing goods and services can satisfy all wants.

·There are different ways to distribute goods and services (by prices, command, majority rule, contests, force, first-come/first-served, sharing equally, lottery, personal characteristics, and others), and there are advantages and disadvantages to each.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·Scarcity requires the use of some distribution method, whether the method is selected explicitly or not.

·There are essential differences between a market economy, in which allocations result from individuals making decisions as buyers and sellers, and a command economy, in which resources are allocated according to central authority.

·People in all economies must address three questions: What goods and services will be produced? How will these goods and services be produced? Who will consume them?

·National economies vary in the extent to which they rely on government directives (central planning) and signals from private markets (prices) to allocate scarce goods, services, and productive resources.

·As consumers, people use resources in different ways to satisfy different wants. Productive resources can be used in different ways to produce different goods and services.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·Comparing the benefits and costs of different allocation methods in order to choose the method that is most appropriate for some specific problem can result in more effective allocations and a more effective overall allocation system.

ROLE OF INCENTIVES

People respond predictably to positive and negative incentives. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Rewards are positive incentives that make people better off.

·Penalties are negative incentives that make people worse off.

·Both positive and negative incentives affect people's choices and behavior.

·People's views of rewards and penalties differ because people have different values. Therefore, an incentive can influence different individuals in different ways.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·Responses to incentives are predictable because people usually pursue their self-interest.

·Changes in incentives cause people to change their behavior in predictable ways.

·Incentives can be monetary or non-monetary.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·Acting as consumers, producers, workers, savers, investors, and citizens, people respond to incentives in order to allocate their scarce resources in ways that provide the highest possible returns to them.

·Small and large firms, labor unions and educational, and other not-for-profit organizations have different goals and face different rules and constraints. These goals, rules, and constraints influence the benefits and costs of those who work with or for those organizations, and, therefore, their behavior.

GAIN FROM TRADE

Voluntary exchange occurs only when all participating parties expect to gain. This is true for trade among individuals or organizations within a nation, and usually among individuals or organizations in different nations. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Exchange is trading goods and services with people for other goods and services or for money.

·The oldest form of exchange is barter the direct trading of goods and services between people.

·People voluntarily exchange goods and services because they expect to be better off after the exchange.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·When people buy something, they value it more than it costs them; when people sell something, they value it less than the payment they receive.

·Free trade increases worldwide material standards of living.

·Despite the mutual benefits from trade among people in different countries, many nations employ trade barriers to restrict free trade for national defense reasons or because some companies and workers are hurt by free trade.

·Imports are foreign goods and services that are purchased from sellers in other nations.

·Exports are domestic goods and services that are sold to buyers in other nations.

·Voluntary exchange among people or organizations in different countries gives people a broader range of choices in buying goods and services.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·A nation pays for its imports with is exports.

·When imports are restricted by public policies, consumers pay higher prices and job opportunities and profits in exporting firms decrease.

SPECIALIZATION AND TRADE

When individuals, regions, and nations specialize in what they can produce at the lowest cost and then trade with others, both production and consumption increase. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Economic specialization occurs when people concentrate their production on fewer kinds of goods and services than they consume.

·Division of labor occurs when the production of a good is broken down into numerous separate tasks, with different workers performing each task.

·Specialization and division of labor usually increase the productivity of workers.

·Greater specialization leads to increasing interdependence among producers and consumers.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·Labor productivity is output per worker.

·Like trade among individuals within one country, international trade promotes specialization and division of labor and increases output and consumption.

·As a result of growing international economic interdependence, economic conditions and policies in one nation increasingly affect economic conditions and policies in other nations.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand

·Two factors that prompt international trade are international differences in the availability of productive resources and differences in relative prices.

·Transaction costs are costs (other than price) that are associated with the purchase of a good or service. When transaction costs decrease, trade increases.

·Individuals and nations have a comparative advantage in the production of goods or services if they can produce a product at a lower opportunity cost than other individuals or nations.

·Comparative advantages change over time because of changes in factor endowments, resource prices, and events that occur in other nations.

MARKETS -- PRICE AND QUANTITY DETERMINATION

Markets exist when buyers and sellers interact. This interaction determines market prices and thereby allocates scarce goods and services. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·A price is what people pay when they buy a good or service, and what they receive when they sell a good or service.

·A market exists whenever buyers and sellers exchange goods and services.

·Most people produce and consume. As producers they make goods and services; as consumers they use goods and services.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·Market prices are determined through the buying and selling decisions made by buyers and sellers.

·Relative prices refers to the price of one good or service compared to the prices of other goods and services. Relative prices are the basic measures of the relative scarcity of products when prices are set by market forces (supply and demand).

·The market clearing or equilibrium price for a good or service is the one price at which quantity supplied equals quantity demanded.

·If a price is above the market clearing price, it will fall, causing sellers to produce less and buyers to purchase more; if it is below the market clearing price, it will rise, causing sellers to produce more and buyers to purchase less.

·An exchange rate is the price of one nation's currency in terms of another nations currency. Like other prices, exchange rates are determined by the forces of supply and demand. Foreign exchange markets allocate international currencies.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·A shortage occurs when buyers want to purchase more than producers want to sell at the prevailing price.

·A surplus occurs when producers want to sell more than buyers want to purchase at the prevailing price.

·Shortages of a product usually result in price increases in a market economy; surpluses usually result in price decreases.

·When the exchange rate between two currencies changes, the relative prices of the goods and services traded among countries using those currencies change; as a result, some groups gain and others lose.

ROLE OF PRICE IN MARKET SYSTEM

Prices send signals and provide incentives to buyers and sellers. When supply or demand changes, market prices adjust, affecting incentives. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·High prices for a good or service provide incentives for buyers to purchase less of that good or service, and for producers to make or sell more of it. Lower prices for a good or service provide incentives for buyers to purchase more of that good or service, and for producers to make or sell less of it.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·An increase in the price of a good or service encourages people to look for substitutes, causing the quantity demanded to decrease, and vice versa. This relationship between price and quantity demanded, known as the law of demand, exists as long as other factors influencing demand do not change.

·An increase in the price of a good or service enables producers to cover higher per-unit costs, causing the quantity supplied to increase, and vice versa. This relationship between price and quantity supplied is normally true as long as other factors influencing costs of production and supply do not change.

·Markets are interrelated; changes in the price of one good or service can lead to changes in prices of many other goods and services.

·Scarce goods and services are allocated in a market economy through the influence of prices on production and consumption decisions.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·Demand for a product changes when there is a change in consumers' incomes or preferences, or in the prices of related goods or services, or in the number of consumers in a market.

·Supply of a product changes when there are changes in either the prices of the productive resources used to make the good or service, the technology used to make the good or service, the profit opportunities available to producers by selling other goods or services, or the number of sellers in a market.

·Changes in supply or demand cause relative prices to change; in turn, buyers and sellers adjust their purchase and sales decisions.

·Government-enforced price ceilings set below the market-clearing price and government-enforced price floors set above the market-clearing price distort price signals and incentives to producers and consumers. The price ceilings cause persistent shortages, while the price floors cause persistent surpluses.

ROLE OF COMPETITION

Competition among sellers lowers costs and prices, and encourages producers to produce more of what consumers are willing and able to buy. Competition among buyers increases prices and allocates goods and services to those people who are willing and able to pay the most for them. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Competition takes place when there are many buyers and sellers of similar products.

·Competition among sellers results in lower costs and prices, higher product quality, and better customer service.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·Sellers compete on the basis of price, product quality, customer service, product design and variety, and advertising.

·Competition among buyers of a product results in higher product prices.

·The level of competition in a market is influenced by the number of buyers and sellers.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·The pursuit of self-interest in competitive markets generally leads to choices and behavior that also promote the national level of economic well-being.

·The level of competition in an industry is affected by the ease with which new producers can enter the industry and by consumers' information about the availability, price and quantity of substitute goods and services.

·Collusion among buyers or sellers reduces the level of competition in a market. Collusion is more difficult in markets with large numbers of buyers and sellers.

·The introduction of new products and production methods by entrepreneurs is an important form of competition and is a source of technological progress and economic growth.

ROLE OF MARKET INSTITUTIONS

Institutions evolve in market economies to help individuals and groups accomplish their goals. Banks, labor unions, corporations, legal systems, and not-for-profit organizations are examples of important institutions. A different kind of institution, clearly defined and enforced property rights, is essential to a market economy. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Banks are institutions where people save money and earn interest, and where other people borrow money and pay interest.

·Saving is the part of income not spent on taxes or consumption.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·Banks and other financial institutions channel funds from savers to borrowers and investors.

·Through the process of collective bargaining with employers, labor unions represent some workers in negotiations involving wages, fringe benefits, and work rules.

·Not-for-profit organizations are established primarily for religious, health, educational, civic, or social purposes and are exempt from certain taxes.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·Property rights, contract enforcement, standards for weights and measures, and liability rules affect incentives for people to produce and exchange goods and services.

·Incorporation allows firms to accumulate sufficient financial capital to make large-scale investments and achieve economies of scale. Incorporation also reduces the risk to investors by limiting stockholders' liability to their share of ownership of the corporation.

ROLE OF MONEY

Money makes it easier to trade, borrow, save, invest, and compare the value of goods and services. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Money is anything widely accepted as final payment for goods and services.

·Money makes trading easier by replacing barter with transactions involving currency, coins, or checks.

·People consume goods and services, not money; money is useful primarily because it can be used to buy goods and services.

·Producers use natural resources, human resources, and capital goods, (not money) to make goods and services.

·Most countries create their own currency for use as money.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·As a store of value, money makes it easier for people to save and defer consumption until the future.

·As a unit of account, money is used to compare the market value of different goods and services.

·Money encourages specialization by decreasing the costs for exchange.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·The basic money supply in the United States consists of currency, coins, and checking account deposits.

·In many economies, when banks make loans, the money supply increases; when loans are paid off, the money supply decreases.

·In many economies, when banks make loans, the money supply increases; when loans are paid off, the money supply decreases.

ROLE OF INTEREST RATES

Interest rates, adjusted for inflation, rise and fall to balance the amount saved with the amount borrowed, which affects the allocation of scarce resources between present and future uses. There are no Grade K-8 benchmarks for this standard. At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will understand:

·An interest rate is a price of money that is borrowed or saved.

·Like other prices, interest rates are determined by the forces of supply and demand.

·The real interest rate is the nominal or current market interest rate minus the expected rate of inflation.

·Higher real interest rates provide incentives for people to save more and borrow less. Lower real interest rates provide incentives for people to save less and borrow more.

·Real interest rates normally are positive because people must be compensated for deferring the use of resources from the present into the future.

·Riskier loans command higher interest rates than safer loans because of the greater chance of default on the repayment of the risky loan. Higher interest rates reduce business investment spending and consumer spending on housing, cars, and other major purchases. Policies that raise interest rates can be used to reduce these kinds of spending, while policies that decrease interest rates can be used to increase these kinds of spending.

ROLE OF RESOURCES IN DETERMINING INCOME

Income for most people is determined by the market value of the productive resources they sell. What workers earn depends, primarily, on the market value of what they produce and how productive they are. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Labor is a human resource that is used to produce goods and services.

·People can earn income by exchanging their human resources (physical or mental work) for wages or salaries.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·Employers are willing to pay wages and salaries to workers because they expect to be able to sell the goods and services that those workers produce at prices high enough to cover the wages and salaries and all other costs of production.

·To earn income people sell productive resources. These include their labor, capital, natural resources, and entrepreneurial talents.

·A wage or salary is the price of labor; it usually is determined by the supply of and demand for labor.

·More productive workers are likely to be of greater value to employers and earn higher wages than less productive workers.

·People's incomes, in part, reflect choices they have made about education, training, skill development, and careers. People with few skills are more likely to be poor.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·Changes in the structure of the economy, the level of gross domestic product, technology, government policies, and discrimination can influence personal income.

·In a labor market, in the absence of other changes, if wage or salary payments increase, workers will increase the quantity of labor they supply and firms will decrease the quantity of labor they demand.

·Changes in the prices for productive resources affect the incomes of the owners of those productive resources and the combination of those resources used by firms.

·Changes in demand for specific goods and services often affect the incomes of the workers who make those goods and services.

·Two methods for classifying how income is distributed in a nation the personal distribution of income and the functional distribution reflect, respectively, the distribution of income among different groups of households and the distribution of income among different businesses and occupations in the economy.

PROFIT AND THE ENTREPRENEUR

Entrepreneurs are people who take the risks of organizing productive resources to make goods and services. Profit is an important incentive that leads entrepreneurs to accept the risks of business failure. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Entrepreneurs are individuals who are willing to take risks, to develop new products, and start new businesses. They recognize opportunities, like working for themselves, and accept challenges.

·An invention is a new product. Innovation is the introduction of an invention into a use that has economic value.

·Entrepreneurs often are innovative. They attempt to solve problems by developing and marketing new or improved products.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·Entrepreneurs compare the expected benefits of entering a new enterprise with the expected costs.

·Entrepreneurs accept the risks in organizing resources to produce goods and services because they hope to earn profits.

·Entrepreneurs and other sellers earn profits when buyers purchase the product they sell at prices high enough to cover the costs of production.

·Entrepreneurs and other sellers incur losses when buyers do not purchase the products they sell at prices high enough to cover costs of production.

·In addition to profits, entrepreneurs respond to other incentives including the opportunity to be their own boss, the chance to achieve recognition, and the satisfaction of creating new products or improving existing ones. In addition to financial losses, other disincentives to which entrepreneurs respond include the responsibility, long hours, and stress of running a business.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·Entrepreneurial decisions affect job opportunities for other workers.

·Entrepreneurial decisions are influenced by government tax and regulatory policies.

GROWTH

Investment in factories, machinery, new technology, and in the health, education, and training of people can raise future standards of living. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·When workers learn and practice new skills they are improving their human capital.

·Workers can improve their productivity by improving their human capital.

·Workers can improve their productivity by using physical capital such as tools and machinery.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·Standards of living increase as the productivity of labor improves.

·Productivity is measured by dividing output (goods and services) by the number of inputs used to produce the output. A change in productivity is a change in output relative to input.

·Technological change is an advance in knowledge leading to new and improved goods and services and better ways of producing them.

·Increases in productivity result from advances in technology and other sources.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·Economic growth is a sustained rise in a nation's production of goods and services. It results from investments in human and physical capital, research and development, and technological change, and from improved institutional arrangements and incentives.

·Historically, economic growth as been the primary vehicle for alleviating poverty and raising standards of living.

·Economic growth creates new employment and profit opportunities in some industries, but growth reduces opportunities in others.

·Investments in physical and or human capital can increase productivity, but such investments entail opportunity costs and economic risks.

·Investing in new physical or human capital can increase productivity, but such investments entail opportunity costs and economic risks.

·Higher interest rates discourage investment.

·The rate of productivity increase in an economy is strongly affected by the incentives that reward successful innovation and investments (in research and development, and in physical and human capital).

ROLE OF GOVERNMENT

There is an economic role for government in a market economy whenever the benefits of a government policy outweigh its costs. Governments often provide for national defense, address environmental concerns, define and protect property rights, and attempt to make markets more competitive. Most government policies also redistribute income. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Governments provide certain kinds of goods and services in a market economy.

·Governments pay for the goods and services they use or provide by taxing or borrowing from people.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·Public goods and services provide benefits to more than one person at a time, and their use can not be restricted to only those people who have paid to use them.

·If a good or service cannot be withheld from those who do not pay for it, providers expect to be unable to sell it and, therefore, will not produce it. In market economies, governments provide some of these goods and services.

·In the United States, the federal government enforces antitrust laws and regulations to try to maintain effective levels of competition in as many markets as possible; frequently, however, laws and regulations also have unintended effects for example reducing competition.

·Most federal government tax revenue comes from personal income and payroll taxes. Payments to social security recipients, the costs of national defense, medical expenditures, and interest payments on the national debt constitute the bulk of federal government spending.

·Most state and local government revenues come from sales taxes, grants from the federal government, personal income taxes, and property taxes. The bulk of state and local government revenue is spent for education, public welfare, road construction and repair, and public safety.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·Markets do not allocate resources effectively if: (1) property rights are not clearly defined or enforced, (2) externalities (spillover effects) affecting large numbers of people are associated with the production or consumption of a product; or (3) markets are not competitive.

·An important role for government in the economy is to define, establish, and enforce property rights. A property right to a good or service includes the right to exclude others from using the good or service and the right to transfer the ownership or use of the resource to others.

·Property rights provide incentives for the owners of resources to weigh the value of present uses against the value of conserving the resources for future use.

·Externalities exist when some of the costs and benefits associated with production and consumption fall on someone other than the producers or consumers of the product.

·When a price fails to reflect all the benefits of a product, too little of the product is produced and consumed. When a price fails to reflect all the cots of a product, too much of it is produced and consumed. Government can use subsidies to help correct for insufficient output; it can use taxes to help correct for excessive output; or it can regulate output directly to correct for over- or under-production or consumption of a product.

·When one producer can supply total output in a market at a cost that is lower than when two or more producers divide production, competition may be impossible. In the absence of competition, government regulations may then be used to try to control price, output, and quality.

·Governments often redistribute income directly when individuals or interest groups are not satisfied with the income distribution resulting from markets; governments also redistribute income indirectly as side-effects of other government actions that affect prices or output levels for various goods and services.

·Governments provide an alternative method to markets for supplying goods and services when it appears that the benefits to society of doing so outweigh the costs to society. Not all individuals will bear the same costs or share the same benefits of those policies.

·A government policy to correct a market imperfection is not justified economically if the cost of implementing it exceeds its expected net benefits.

USING COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS TO EVALUATE GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS

Costs of government policies sometimes exceed benefits. This may occur because of incentives facing voters, government officials, and government employees, because of actions by special interest groups that can impose costs on the general public, or because social goals other than economic efficiency are being pursued. There are no Grades K-8 benchmarks for this standard. At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will understand:

·Citizens, government employees, and elected officials do not always directly bear the costs of their political decisions. This often leads to policies whose costs outweigh their benefits for society.

·Incentives exist for political leaders to implement policies that disperse costs widely over large groups of people and benefit small, and politically powerful groups of people.

·Incentives exist for political leaders to favor programs that entail immediate benefits and deferred costs; few incentives favor programs promising immediate costs and deferred benefits, even though the latter programs are sometimes economically more effective than the former programs.

·Although barriers to international trade usually impose more costs than benefits, they are often advocated by people and groups who expect to gain substantially from them. Because the costs of these barriers are typically spread over a large number of people who each pay only a little and may not recognize the cost, policies supporting trade barriers are often adopted through the political process.

·Price controls are often advocated by special interest groups. Price controls reduce the quantity of goods and services produced, thus depriving consumers of some goods and services whose value would exceed their cost.

MACROECONOMY-INCOME/EMPLOYMENT, PRICES

A nation's overall levels of income, employment, and prices are determined by the interaction of spending and production decisions made by all households, firms, government agencies, and others in the economy. There are no Grades K-4 benchmarks for this standard. At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will understand:

·Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a basic measure of a nation's economic output and income. It is the total market value, measured in dollars, of all final goods and services produced in the economy in one year.

·Per capita GDP is GDP divided by the number of people living in a country.

·When consumers make purchases, goods and services are transferred from businesses to households in exchange for money payments. That money is used in turn by businesses to pay for productive resources (natural, human, and capital), and to pay taxes.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·Nominal GDP is measured in current dollars; thus, an increase in GDP may reflect not only increases in the production of goods and services, but also increases in prices. GDP adjusted for price changes is called "real GDP." Real GDP per capita is a measure that permits comparisons of material living standards over time and among different nations.

·The potential level of real GDP for a nation is determined by the quantity and quality of its natural resources, the size and skills of its labor force, and the size and quality of its stock of capital resources.

·One person's spending is other people's income. Consequently, an initial change in spending (consumption, investment, government, or net exports) usually results in a larger change in national levels of income, spending, and output.

·When desired expenditures for consumption, investment, government spending, and net exports are greater than the value of a nation's output of final goods and services, GDP rises, and inflation occurs and/or employment rises.

·When desired expenditures for consumption, investment, government spending, and net exports are less than the value of a nation's output of final goods and services, GDP decreases and inflation and/or employment decreases.

UNEMPLOYMENT AND INFLATION

Unemployment imposes costs on individuals and nations. Unexpected inflation imposes costs on many people and benefits some others because it arbitrarily redistributes purchasing power. Inflation can reduce the rate of growth of national living standards because individuals and organizations use resources to protect themselves against the uncertainty of future prices. At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Inflation is an increase in most prices; deflation is a decrease in most prices.

·Unemployment exists when people who are willing and able to work do not have jobs.

At the completion of Grades 5-8, students will also understand:

·When unemployment exists, an economy's production is less than potential GDP and some labor resources are not used.

·The labor force consists of people age 16 and over who are employed or actively seeking work.

·Inflation reduces the value of money.

·When people's incomes increase more slowly than the inflation rate, their purchasing power declines.

At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will also understand:

·The unemployment rate is the percentage of the labor force that is willing and able to work, does not currently have a job, and is actively looking for work.

·The unemployment rate is an imperfect measure of unemployment because it does not: (1) include workers whose job prospects are so poor that they are discouraged from seeking jobs, (2) reflect part-time workers who are looking for full-time work.

·Unemployment rates differ for people of different ages, races, and sexes. This reflects differences in work experience, education, training, and skills, as well as discrimination.

·Unemployment can be caused by people changing jobs, by seasonal fluctuations in demand, by changes in the skills needed by employers, or by cyclical fluctuations in the level of national spending.

·Explain why some people are unemployed when the economy is said to be functioning at full employment.

·The consumer price index (CPI) is the most commonly used measure of price-level changes. It can be used to compare the price level in one year with price levels in earlier or later periods.

·Expectations of inflation may lead to higher interest rates.

·The costs of inflation are different for different groups of people. Unexpected inflation hurts savers and people on fixed incomes; it helps people who have borrowed money at a fixed rate of interest.

·Inflation imposes costs on people beyond its effects on wealth distribution because people devote resources to protect themselves from expected inflation.

MONETARY AND FISCAL POLICY

Federal government budgetary policy and the Federal Reserve System's monetary policy influence the overall levels of employment, output, and prices. There are no Grades K-8 benchmarks for this standard. At the completion of Grades 9-12, students will understand:

·UFiscal policies are decisions to change spending and tax levels by the federal government. These decisions are adopted to influence national levels of output, employment, and prices.

·In the short run, increasing federal spending and/or reducing taxes can promote more employment and output, but these policies also put upward pressure on the price level and interest rates. Decreased federal spending and/or increased taxes tend to lower price levels and interest rates, but they reduce employment and output levels in the short run.

·In the long run, the interest-rate effects of fiscal policies lead to changes in private investment spending by businesses and individuals that partially, if not entirely, offset the output and employment effects of fiscal policy.

·The federal government's annual budget is balanced when its revenues from taxes and user fees equal its expenditures. The government runs a budget deficit when its expenditures exceed its revenues. The government runs a surplus when its revenues exceed its expenditures.

·When the government runs a budget deficit, it must borrow from individuals, corporation, or financial institutions to finance that deficit.

·The national debt is the total amount of money the federal government owes. This is the accumulated sum of its annual deficits and surpluses. The government pays interest on the money it borrows to finance the national debt.

·In the long-run, inflation results from increases in a nation's money supply that exceed increases in its output of goods and services.

·Monetary policies are decisions by the Federal Reserve System that lead to changes in the supply of money and the availability of credit. Changes in the money supply can influence overall levels of spending, employment, and prices in the economy by inducing changes in interest rates charged for credit, and by affecting the levels of personal and business investment spending.

·The major monetary policy tool that the Federal Reserve System uses is open market purchases or sales of government securities. Other policy tools used by the Federal Reserve System include increasing or decreasing the discount rate charged on loans it makes to commercial banks and raising or lowering reserve requirements for commercial banks.

SOCIAL SCIENCES - GEOGRAPHY

THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS

As a result of activities in grades K-12, all students should

·Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.

·Understand how to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context.

·Understand how to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface.

PLACES AND REGIONS

As a result of activities in grades K-12, all students should

·Understand the physical and human characteristics of places.

·Understand that people create regions to interpret Earth's complexity.

·Understand how culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions.

PHYSICAL SYSTEMS

As a result of activities in grades K-12, all students should

·Understand the physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface.

·Understand the characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface.

HUMAN SYSTEMS

As a result of activities in grades K-12, all students should

·Understand the characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth's surface.

·Understand the characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics.

·Understand the patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.

·Understand the processes,patterns, and functions of human settlement.

·Understand how the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth's surface.

ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY

As a result of activities in grades K-12, all students should

·Understand how human actions modify the physical environment.

·Understand how physical systems affect human systems.

·Understand the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources.

THE USES OF GEOGRAPHY

As a result of activities in grades K-12, all students should

·Understand how to apply geography to interpret the past.

·Understand how to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.

SOCIAL SCIENCES - U.S. HISTORY

LIVING AND WORKING TOGETHER IN FAMILIES AND COMMUNITIES, NOW AND LONG AGO

At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand family life now and in the past, and family life in various places long ago

·Understand the history of the local community and how communities in North America varied long ago

THE HISTORY OF STUDENTS' OWN STATE OR REGION

At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand the people, events, problems, and ideas that were significant in creating the history of their state

THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES: DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES AND VALUES AND THE PEOPLE FROM MANY CULTURES WHO CONTRIBUTED TO ITS CULTURAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL HERITAGE

At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand how democratic values came to be, and how they have been exemplified by people, events, and symbols

·Understand the causes and nature of movements of large groups of people into and within the United States, now and long ago

·Understand the folklore and other cultural contributions from various regions of the United States and how they helped to form a national heritage

THE HISTORY OF PEOPLES OF MANY CULTURES AROUND THE WORLD

At the completion of Grades K-4, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand selected attributes and historical developments of societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe

·Understand major discoveries in science and technology, some of their social and economic effects, and the major scientists and inventors responsible for them

ERA 1: THREE WORLDS MEET (BEGINNINGS TO 1620)

At the completion of Grades 5-12, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand comparative characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450

·Understand how early European exploration and colonization resulted in cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected peoples

ERA 2: COLONIZATION AND SETTLEMENT (1585-1763)

At the completion of Grades 5-12, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand why the Americas attracted Europeans, why they brought enslaved Africans to their colonies, and how Europeans struggled for control of North America and the Caribbean

·Understand how political, religious, and social institutions emerged in the English colonies

·Understand how the values and institutions of European economic life took root in the colonies, and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas

ERA 3: REVOLUTION AND THE NEW NATION (1754-1820s)

At the completion of Grades 5-12, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand the causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in forging the revolutionary movement, and the reasons for the American victory

·Understand the impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society

·Understand the institutions and practices of government created during the Revolution and how they were revised between 1787 and 1815 to create the foundation of the American political system based on the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights

ERA 4: EXPANSION AND REFORM (1801-1861)

At the completion of Grades 5-12, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans

·Understand how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed the lives of Americans and led toward regional tensions

·Understand the extension, restriction, and reorganization of political democracy after 1800

·Understand the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period

ERA 5: CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (1850-1877)

At the completion of Grades 5-12, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand the causes of the Civil War

·Understand the course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people

·Understand how various reconstruction plans succeeded or failed

ERA 6: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL UNITED STATES (1870-1900)

At the completion of Grades 5-12, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed the American people

·Understand massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity

·Understand the rise of the American labor movement and how political issues reflected social and economic changes

·Understand Federal Indian policy and United States foreign policy after the Civil War

ERA 7: THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN AMERICA (1890-1930)

At the completion of Grades 5-12, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand how Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption

·Understand the changing role of the United States in world affairs through World War I

·Understand how the United States changed from the end of World War I to the eve of the Great Depression

ERA 8: THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND WORLD WAR II (1929-1945)

At the completion of Grades 5-12, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand the causes of the Great Depression and how it affected American society

·Understand how the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state

·Understand the causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs

ERA 9: POSTWAR UNITED STATES (1945 TO EARLY 1970s)

At the completion of Grades 5-12, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand the economic boom and social transformation of postwar United States

·Understand how the Cold War and conflicts in Korea and Vietnam influenced domestic and international politics

·Understand domestic policies after World War II

·Understand the struggle for racial and gender equality and the extension of civil liberties

ERA 10: CONTEMPORARY UNITED STATES (1968 TO THE PRESENT)

At the completion of Grades 5-12, students should know the following benchmarks for this standard:

·Understand recent developments in foreign and domestic politics

·Understand economic, social, and cultural developments in contemporary United States

SOCIAL SCIENCES - WORLD HISTORY

ERA 1: THE BEGINNINGS OF HUMAN SOCIETY

The student in grades 5-12 should understand

·the biological and cultural processes that gave rise to the earliest human communities

·the processes that led to the emergence of agricultural societies around the world

ERA 2: EARLY CIVILIZATIONS AND THE EMERGENCE OF PASTORAL PEOPLES, 4000-1000 BCE

The student in grades 5-12 should understand

·the major characteristics of civilization and how civilizations emerged in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus valley.

·how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE.

·the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE.

·major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE.

ERA 3: CLASSICAL TRADITIONS, MAJOR RELIGIONS, AND GIANT EMPIRES, 1000 BCE-300 BCE

The student in grades 5-12 should understand

·innovation and change from 1000-600 BCE: horses, ships, iron, and monotheistic faith.

·the emergence of Aegean civilization and how interrelations developed among peoples of the eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia, 600-200 BCE.

·how major religions and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean basin, China, and India, 500 BCE-300 CE.

·the development of early agrarian civilizations in Mesoamerica.

·major global trends from 1000 BCE-300 CE.

ERA 4: EXPANDING ZONES OF EXCHANGE AND ENCOUNTER, 300-1000 CE

The student in grades 5-12 should understand

·imperial crises and their aftermath, 300-700 CE.

·causes and consequences of the rise of Islamic civilization in the 7th-10th centuries.

·major developments in East Asia in the era of the Tang dynasty, 600-900 CE.

·the search for political, social, and cultural redefinition in Europe, 500-1000 CE.

·the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania.

·the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the first millennium CE.

·major global trends from 300-1000 CE.

ERA 5: INTENSIFIED HEMISPHERIC INTERACTIONS, 1000-1500 CE

The student in grades 5-12 should understand

·the maturing of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange in an era of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion.

·the redefining of European society and culture, 1000-1300 CE.

·the rise of the Mongol empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples, 1200-1350.

·the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries.

·patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia, 1300-1450.

·the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas, 1000-1500.

·major global trends from 1000-1500 CE.

ERA 6: THE EMERGENCE OF THE FIRST GLOBAL AGE, 1450-1770

The student in grades 5-12 should understand

·how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world from 1450 to 1600 led to global transformations.

·how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication, 1450-1750.

·how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries.

·economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas,1500-1750.

·transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion.

·major global trends from 1450 to 1770.

ERA 7: AN AGE OF REVOLUTIONS, 1750-1914

The student in grades 5-12 should understand

·the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

·the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions, 1700-1850.

·the transformation of Eurasian societies in an era of global trade and rising European power, 1750-1850.

·patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas, 1830-1914.

·patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic domination, 1850-1914.

·major global trends from 1750 to 1914.

ERA 8: A HALF-CENTURY OF CRISIS AND ACHIEVEMENT, 1900-1945

The student in grades 5-12 should understand

·reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early century.

·the causes and global consequences of World War I.

·the search for peace and stability in the 1920s and 1930s.

·the causes and global consequences of World War II.

·major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II.

ERA 9: THE 20TH CENTURY SINCE 1945: PROMISES AND PARADOXES

The student in grades 5-12 should understand

·how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up.

·the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world.

·major global trends since World War II.